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    The Northern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is north of the equator. Countries in the Northern Hemisphere include Canada, Russia, and most of Europe. The largest country in the Northern Hemisphere is Russia. The Southern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is south of the equator. Countries in the Southern Hemisphere include Argentina, Chile, and Australia. The largest country in the Southern Hemisphere is Brazil.


    Ecuador is located on the west coast of South America and is bordered by Colombia to the north and Peru to the east and south. The country’s landscape is diverse, with coastal plains, mountains and jungle.

    The capital of Ecuador is Quito, which is located in the Andes Mountains at an altitude of 9,350 feet (2,850 meters). Other major cities include Guayaquil on the coast, Cuenca in the mountains and Ambato in the central valley.

    Ecuador has a population of about 16 million people. The official language is Spanish, but many indigenous languages are also spoken.

    The country’s economy is based on agriculture, fishing, forestry and mining. Ecuador also exports oil and bananas.


    Colombia is a sovereign country located in the northwestern region of South America. With an area of 1,141,748 square kilometers, Colombia is the fourth-largest country in South America after Brazil, Argentina, and Peru. It is bounded by Panama to the north, Venezuela to the east, Brazil to the southeast, Ecuador to the south, and Peru to the southwest. The official language of Colombia is Spanish.

    Colombia is a megadiverse country with abundant natural resources. Its territory encompasses the Amazon rainforest, highlands, grasslands, and deserts. Colombia shares a land border with five countries: Venezuela (2,219 km), Brazil (1,643 km), Ecuador (541 km), Peru (1,496 km), and Panama (225 km). Additionally, it shares maritime borders with Costa Rica (330 km), Nicaragua (300 km), Honduras (353 km), Jamaica (1,770 km), Haiti (360 km), and Dominican Republic (565 km).


    Brazil, the largest country in South America, is entirely north of the equator. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the east, Guyana and Venezuela to the north, Colombia to the northwest, Peru and Bolivia to the west, Argentina and Paraguay to the south, and Uruguay to the southeast. With over 200 million people, Brazil is the fifth most populous country in the world. Its capital is Brasília, and its official language is Portuguese.


    Venezuela is a country located on the northern coast of South America. It is bordered by Colombia to the west, Guyana to the east, and Brazil to the south. The capital of Venezuela is Caracas.

    Venezuela is home to some of the world’s most amazing natural wonders, including Angel Falls, which is the world’s tallest waterfall. The country is also home to Mount Roraima, one of the tallest mountains in South America.

    Venezuela has a diverse population, with people from all over the world calling it home. The official language of Venezuela is Spanish, but many other languages are spoken in the country as well.

    If you’re looking for an exotic and exciting destination that is sure to take your breath away, then Venezuela should be at the top of your list!


    Guyana is a small South American nation located entirely north of the equator. The country is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north, Brazil to the south and west, Suriname to the east, and Venezuela to the west.

    With a population of just over 775,000 people, Guyana is one of the smallest countries in South America. The vast majority of the population is of African descent, with a significant minority of East Indian and Amerindian ancestry. English is the official language, but Guyanese Creole and several indigenous languages are also spoken.

    The country’s landscape is diverse, with rainforests, rivers, mountains and coastline all within its borders. Georgetown, the capital city, is located on the coast and is home to some of Guyana’s most iconic architecture including St George’s Cathedral and City Hall.

    Guyanese culture is a unique blend of African, East Indian and European influences. The country has a rich musical heritage which includes traditional folk music as well as more modern styles such as calypso and soca. Literature and art also play an important role in Guyanese culture with many writers and artists finding inspiration in their homeland’s natural beauty and diverse history.


    Suriname is a sovereign state on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America. It is bordered by French Guiana to the east, Guyana to the west and Brazil to the south. Suriname was colonized by the English and Dutch in the 17th century. In 1667, it was ceded to the Dutch Republic. The Dutch colony of Suriname was established in 1683 and grew to encompass much of northern South America, including parts of present-day Guyana, Venezuela, and Colombia.

    In 1954, Suriname became one of the constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and gained full independence in 1975. Since independence, Suriname has been governed as a republic with a democratically-elected president serving as head of state and head of government. The unicameral National Assembly is composed of 51 seats, with members elected every five years through a system of proportional representation.

    The economy of Suriname is dominated by natural resource extraction; agriculture accounts for only 3% of GDP while mining and petroleum account for more than 60%. Suriname’s main export commodities are gold, aluminum oxide, crude oil, shrimp, timber, and rice. Tourism is also becoming an increasingly important sector; almost 200,000 tourists visited Suriname in 2016.

    French Guiana

    French Guiana is a small country located in northern South America. It is bordered by Brazil to the east and Suriname to the west. French Guiana has a population of just over 200,000 people and its capital city is Cayenne.

    French Guiana is an overseas department of France and as such, it is part of the European Union. The official language of French Guiana is French but Creole and Portuguese are also widely spoken.

    The economy of French Guiana is largely dependent on agriculture and forestry. The main crops grown in the country are rice, sugarcane, and corn. Fishing is also an important industry in French Guiana.

    Tourism is not a major industry in French Guiana but the country does attract some visitors due to its unique location and culture. Popular tourist attractions include rainforests, beaches, and wildlife reserves.

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