## To Construct A Switch Using A Transistor And To Draw The Graph Between The Input And Output Voltage

Question

1. In this project we are going to construct a switch using a transistor and drawing the graph between the input and output voltage.

## Introduction:

In this article, you will learn how to construct a switch using a transistor and to draw the graph between the input and output voltage.

Transistors are semiconductor devices that can be used as switches. When current flows through them and they get activated, they allow more current to flow through them by opening up an electrical path for it. A transistor has three terminals: Collector, Base, Emitter (CBE).

## + A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power.

Transistors are semiconductor devices used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power. They are made of a material known as semiconductor, which means that its conductivity can be controlled by the application of an electric field. The three terminals for connection to an external circuit (the base, collector, and emitter) are created by doping different parts of a single crystal of semiconductor with impurities (such as arsenic or boron), creating three regions with different conductivities. This allows current to flow between two points in the transistor when a small voltage is applied across its terminals – providing amplification and/or switching capabilities.

## + It is composed of semiconductor material usually with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit.

A transistor is a semiconductor device with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit.

## Objective :

In this circuit, the transistor is used as a switch which is controlled by a voltage source. The base of the transistor receives a control signal (i.e., input) from another source and determines whether or not current can flow through its collector to emitter leads. If it gets enough current flowing through its base, then it will allow more current to flow through its collector-emitter leads. This means that when enough voltage is applied across its base-emitter terminals, then switch S1 will be closed (a condition in which no other path exists for current except through S1).

## + To Construct A Switch Using A Transistor And To Draw The Graph Between The Input And Output Voltage .

The purpose of this project is to construct a switch using a transistor and to draw the graph between the input and output voltage. The objective of this project is to make use of transistors in order to create a switch. This will help you understand how switches work, as well as how transistors work.

The theory behind this project includes learning about transistors, what they do, and how they can be used as switches in electronic circuits. You need some components for your circuit diagram such as resistors, capacitors and diodes along with an LED light bulb because it makes things easier on us when we’re trying out our circuit diagrams before actually building them out just like what I did here at home where I have my own little lab set up so that way i can test different things out before making them into something else which usually takes time but not when you have all these pieces already around ready made so now let’s get started constructing

## Theory :

A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power. It is composed of semiconductor material usually with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. The control terminal of the transistor can be connected to an alternating current voltage source (AC), a logic gate, or other circuit element; the resulting configuration then determines how the device behaves.

## + In order to turn on the LED we need to apply a base voltage of 0.7v and in order to completely turn off the LED we need to apply 5v, so we can say that 0.7v < Vin < 5v will work according to our requirements.

In this circuit, the main component is a transistor which acts as a switch. You can connect any load to the output of your circuit using this transistor switching mechanism.

The base voltage of 0.7v is used to turn on the LED, when we apply 5v to the base of our NPN transistor it will turn off completely and not allow any current to flow through its collector-emitter terminals thus turning off our LED and vice versa if we apply 0.7v at its base terminal then it will allow current flow through its collector-emitter terminals thereby closing our switch and turning on our load or light emitting diode (LED).

## Circuit diagram :

• The circuit diagram shows the connections of all the components.
• It shows how to connect the components together.
• It shows the connections between the components and the power supply, labelled as V in and V out .

## ![](figure/fig1.png)

Figure 1.png

In this figure, you can see that the output voltage is equal to the input voltage.

## Components List:

You will need:

• BC547 transistor (NPN) : 1
• 100 ohm resistor : 2
• 10k ohm resistor : 1

## + BC547 transistor ( NPN ) : 1

+BC547 is a PNP transistor.

+BC547 is a NPN transistor.

+BC547 is a general purpose transistor.

+BC547 is a common emitter amplifier.

## + 100 ohm resistor : 2

+ 100 ohm resistor : 2

This is the type of resistor used in this circuit. It’s value determines how much resistance you need to lower the voltage from your input source to get a desired output voltage on the collector of your transistor. The value of R4 must be inversely proportional to that of R2, which means that if you want twice as much current through R4, then you’ll need half as much resistance through it. In our example here, we’re going for about 40mA or 0.040 amps flowing through both transistors but only 20mA or 0.020 amps being used by our LED itself (which means there will be less than 1/10th of an amp necessary).

## + 10k ohm resistor : 1

In the circuit diagram, you can see that a 10k ohm resistor is used to limit current flow. The value of this resistor is determined by what we want to achieve; for example, if we wanted to increase current flow then we would have used a smaller value (e.g., 1k Ohm). Resistors are usually passive electronic components which implement electrical resistance as a circuit element. They are typically used to reduce current flow, increase impedance between two circuits, or terminate transmission lines.

## + Wire lead : 1

A wire lead is a type of wire used in electronics. It’s designed to connect electronic components together, and comes in many different shapes, sizes, and materials. However, if you’re going to be dealing with electricity—even just turning it on or off—you’ll have to be familiar with some basic facts about wire leads before you start working on this project.

The most common kind of wire lead has two ends: one end where it connects to another component (such as a switch), and another end where the bare metal connects directly to an electric current. These are called “input” wires because they bring power from whatever source you’re using into your circuit; they can also be called output wires since they send electricity out from your circuit through them!

## + Bread board : 1

A Breadboard is a printed circuit board that is used to make temporary circuits. It consists of rows and columns of holes, into which special pins (or “wires”) can be inserted. The wires are then connected to each other by pressing them into the same row or column.

The breadboard allows you to test out ideas without having to solder anything permanently, so if your project doesn’t work as expected or if you’d like to try another idea, it’s easy enough to replace the wires with different ones before moving forward with your next version.

## Explanation Of Circuit Diagram:

The circuit diagram has a transistor acting as an amplifier and a switch. The base terminal of the transistor is connected to one end of a resistor R2 which acts as its load resistance. The other end of this resistor is connected to ground through LED1 (Light Emitting Diode).

The emitter terminal of the transistor is connected to one end of R3 which acts as its input resistance. The other end of this resistor is connected to Vcc(+5V).

The collector terminal of the transistor is connected to one end of R1 which acts as its output resistance. The other end of this resistor is connected to ground through LED2 (Light Emitting Diode).

## + Here one end of the wire is connected to the collector pin and one is going out of the transistor which is connected to the ground point of circuit, and the other end of the wire is connected to first 100 ohm resistor and after adding a second part of the wire, this wire end is connected to the positive supply of 5v using a jumper cable.

• First, connect one end of the wire to the collector pin and another end is going out of transistor which is connected to ground point of circuit.
• And then add a second part of wire and connect its other end at first 100 ohm resistor, when this ends are connected so you should look at your circuit that they are now connected in parallel with each other.
• Connections will be made as shown in given figure one where connection can be made with jumper cable at positive supply point (5V)

## Conclusion

+ After building the circuit, we can see that the LED will be turned on when Vin is lower than 0.7v and when Vin is greater than 5v. In order to turn off the LED, we need to apply base voltage of 5v and complete turn off will be achieved when Vin is higher than 5v.

2. # To Construct A Switch Using A Transistor And To Draw The Graph Between The Input And Output Voltage

When you think of electronics, the first thing that comes to mind is probably a transistor. Transistors are the building blocks of modern electronics and they play an important role in everything from laptops to smartphones. In this blog post, we’re going to explore how to construct a switch using a transistor and draw the graph between the input and output voltage. By the end, you’ll have a better understanding of what transistors do and how they work in electronic devices.

## What is a transistor?

A transistor is a semiconductor device used in electronic equipment to amplify or switch electrical signals. It consists of one or more layers of a material called an insulating material sandwiched between two conductors. When a voltage is applied to the input, the transistor allows current through one of the conductors and interrupts it when a signal is sent from the output.

## How does a transistor work?

A transistor is an electronic device that can be used to switch electrical current on and off. When the voltage on the gate, or input side, of a transistor is greater than the voltage on the drain, or output side, electrons flow from the drain to the gate. This causes an electric current to flow through the transistor, turning it on or off.

## How to make a transistor switch

Making a transistor switch is easy if you have the right tools and know how to use them. You will need a transistor, some wire, a breadboard, and some jumper wires. First, connect one end of the wire to the positive terminal on the transistor and the other end to the negative terminal. Next, connect one end of the jumper wires to each of the other terminals on the breadboard. Finally, connect each jumper wire back to its respective terminal on the breadboard. Now turn on your power source and test your switch by connecting one end of your test wire to both terminals on your transistor and testing for an output voltage. If everything is working correctly, you should see a voltage output from your transistor when connected to each terminal in succession.

## Conclusion

In this lab, we investigated how to construct a switch using a transistor and to draw the graph between the input and output voltage. We found that if the current through the switch increases beyond a certain point, it will flip from one state to another. By graphing our data, we were also able to see that there is an instant when the current flips from high to low. This knowledge can be useful in designing more efficient switches or in understanding why some electrical devices fail. So far, this has been my favorite lab experience at WIIT!

3. In today’s world, electricity is not only essential for powering our gadgets and appliances, but it’s also a critical part of modern manufacturing. From LED lighting to robotics and more, electricity is essential for keeping everything running smoothly. In this tutorial, we will explore the basics of how to construct a switch using a transistor and draw the graph between the input and output voltage. By the end, you will have everything you need to design your own circuit!

## What is a transistor?

A transistor is a semiconductor device that can be used to switch an electric current. It is made of two or more layers of materials, with a layer between the two that allows current flow. When voltage is applied to one of the junctions between the layers, the transistor conducts electricity through its body from the input to the output.

## How does a transistor work?

A transistor is a semiconductor device that can switch an electric current on and off. It does this by controlling the flow of electrons through a channel called a channel region. When the transistor is turned on, more current flows through the channel region. This causes the voltage at the input to be higher than the voltage at the output. The transistor can be turned off by decreasing the current through the channel region.

## What are the different types of transistors?

There are basically three different types of transistors: NPN, PNP, and bipolar.

NPN transistor:

This type of transistor is made up of two doped regions connected by an “anode” region. The anode region is where the current flows inwards, while the cathode region supplies electrons to the emitter. When turned on, current will flow through the collector (input) to the emitter (output), and the voltage at the collector will be greater than that at the emitter.
It is a common type of transistor used in radios, televisions, and computer systems.

PNP transistor:

This type of transistor has one doped region instead of two.Current will only flow through the collector if it is held at a high enough voltage. This makes it useful for preventing current from flowing through switches when they are not being used.
Some examples of devices that use PNP transistors are CD players and digital cameras.

Bipolar transistor:

This type of transistor consists of two identical doped regions connected by an “anode.” Current can only flow in one direction through this kind of transistor- from the anode to the cathode- so it is mainly used in circuits that need to switch between two voltages (like Lights).

## How to make a switch using a transistor

If you want to know how to make a switch using a transistor, you will need the following materials:

-a transistor
-an LED
-some wire
-a resistor

To make a switch using a transistor, follow these steps:
1. Disconnect the power to the LED.
2. Connect the anode (positive end) of the LED to one lead of the transistor and connect the cathode (negative end) of the LED to another lead of the transistor.
3. Touch both leads together so that they are connected and turn on your power source.
4. Observe what voltage is produced at each lead by the LED.
5. Find out which lead is producing more voltage by comparing them. The lead with more voltage is called “the output” and the other lead is called “the input.”
6. Draw a graph between “the input” and “the output.” This graph will show you how much voltage changes when you move your finger from “the input” to “the output.”

In this concluding article of the series, we will take a look at how to actually build the circuit and connect it to our power supply. Once everything is connected up, we can start drawing the graph that shows how voltage changes with time. In the next few articles, we will be building on this knowledge and will be able to create more complex circuits, so stay tuned!